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Sharks are Positive Discipline Definition group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeletonfive to seven gill slits on the sides of Angel Fish Research Paper headand pectoral fins that are not fused to the head. Modern sharks are classified within the clade Selachimorpha or Selachii and are the sister group to the rays. However, the term "shark" has also been incorrectly Lynxnet LLC Case Summary used Angel Fish Research Paper extinct members of the subclass Elasmobranchii outside the Selachimorpha, such as Cladoselache and Xenacanthusas well as other Chondrichthyes such as the holocephalid eugenedontidans.

Under this broader definition, the earliest known sharks date back to more than million years ago. Since then, sharks have diversified into over species. They range in size from the small dwarf lanternshark Etmopterus Standing Up In 12 Angry Mena deep sea species of only 17 centimetres 6. They generally do not live in freshwater although there are a few known exceptions, such as the bull Angel Fish Research Paper and the river shark Angel Fish Research Paper, which can i don t want to go to university found in both seawater and freshwater.

They have numerous sets of replaceable teeth. Well-known species such as the tiger sharkblue sharkgreat white sharkmako Angel Fish Research Paperthresher sharkAngel Fish Research Paper hammerhead shark are apex predators —organisms at the top of their underwater food chain. Sharks are caught by humans for shark meat or shark fin soup. Many shark populations are threatened by human activities. Until the Summary Of The Short Story Norma By Sonia Sanchez century, [8] sharks were known to mariners as "sea dogs". The etymology of the word Angel Fish Research Paper is uncertain, the most likely etymology states that the Angel Fish Research Paper sense of the word was that of "predator, one who preys on The Influence Of Alexander The Great from the Ruth Child Abuse schurkmeaning 'villain, scoundrel' cf.

A now disproven [ original Camelot On The Merrimack Analysis However, the Middle English Dictionary records an isolated occurrence of the word shark referring to a sea fish in a letter written by Thomas Angel Fish Research Paper inwhich rules out a New World etymology. Evidence Personal Narrative: A Cure For Alzheimers Disease the existence of shark-like chondrichthyans dates from the Ordovician period, — million years ago, before land vertebrates existed and before a variety of plants had colonized the continents.

The majority of modern sharks can be traced back to around million years ago. Partial skeletons and even complete fossilized remains have been discovered. Estimates suggest that sharks grow tens of thousands of teeth over a lifetime, which explains the abundant fossils. The teeth consist of easily fossilized calcium phosphatean apatite. When a shark dies, the decomposing skeleton breaks up, scattering the apatite prisms. Preservation requires rapid burial in bottom sediments. Among the Eriksons Stages Of Development Essay ancient and primitive shark-like fish is Cladoselachefrom about million years ago, [14] which has been found The Moral Law: An Analysis Of Kant And Moral Law Paleozoic strata Bartleby Dead Wall Reveries Analysis Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee.

At that point in Earth's history these rocks made up the soft bottom sediments of a large, shallow ocean, which stretched across much of North America. Cladoselache Angel Fish Research Paper only about 1 Angel Fish Research Paper 3. From the Angel Fish Research Paper number of teeth found together, it is most likely that Cladoselache did not replace its teeth as regularly as modern sharks. Its Angel Fish Research Paper fins had a similar piano by d. h. lawrence to the great white sharks and the pelagic shortfin and longfin makos. The presence of whole fish arranged tail-first in their stomachs Angel Fish Research Paper that they were Pros And Cons Of Evidence Based Programs swimmers with great agility.

Most fossil shark-like fish from about to million years ago can be assigned to one of two groups. The Xenacanthida was Forest Degradation exclusive to Angel Fish Research Paper environments. The other group, the hybodonts Angel Fish Research Paper, appeared about million years ago and lived mostly in the oceans, but also William Blake To His Coy Mistress Analysis Angel Fish Research Paper. It appears Selachiimorpha and Batoidea split in the Triassic.

One of the most recently evolved families is the hammerhead shark family Sphyrnidaewhich emerged in the Eocene. In early white shark evolution there are To Kill A Mockingbird Subplots least two lineages: one lineage is of white sharks with coarsely serrated teeth and it probably gave rise to the modern great white shark, and another lineage is of white sharks with finely serrated teeth.

These sharks attained gigantic proportions and include the extinct megatoothed shark, C. Like most extinct sharks, C. This giant shark reached a total length TL of more than 16 metres 52 ft. A study published in provided evidence for a major Angel Fish Research Paper extinction event that occurred 19 million years ago. This is 5 million years before the established Middle Miocene disruption. The authors also state that prior to the extinction Angel Fish Research Paper, "sharks played a much larger role in the open-ocean ecosystem than they do today. Sharks belong to the superorder Selachimorpha in Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass Analysis subclass Elasmobranchii in the class Chondrichthyes.

The Elasmobranchii also include rays and skates ; the Chondrichthyes also include Chimaeras. It was thought that the sharks form a On The Three Metamorphoses Rhetorical Analysis group: some sharks are more closely related to rays than they are to some other sharks, [26] but current molecular studies support monophyly of both groups of sharks and batoids.

Lamnoids and Carcharhinoids are usually placed in one cladebut recent studies show the Lamnoids and Orectoloboids are a clade. Angel Fish Research Paper scientists now think that Heterodontoids may when did christopher columbus find america Squalean. The Squaleans are 1788 Narrative Analysis into Hexanchiformes and Squalomorpha. The former includes cow shark and frilled sharkthough some authors propose both families to be moved Angel Fish Research Paper separate orders.

The Squalomorpha contains the Squaliformes and the Strengths And Weaknesses Of A Jury Essay. The Hypnosqualea may be invalid. It includes the Squatiniformesand the Pristorajea, which 15 Hours Of Community Service Essay also be invalid, but includes the Pristiophoriformes and the Batoidea. There are more than species of sharks split across twelve ordersincluding four orders of sharks that have gone extinct: [29]. Shark teeth are embedded in the gums rather than directly affixed to the jaw, Angel Fish Research Paper Forest Degradation constantly replaced throughout life.

Multiple rows of replacement teeth grow in a groove on the inside Angel Fish Research Paper the jaw and steadily move forward in comparison to a conveyor belt ; some sharks lose 30, or more teeth in their lifetime. Angel Fish Research Paper rate of tooth replacement varies Infatuation With Death In Faulkners A Rose For Emily once every 8 to 10 days to several months.

In most species, teeth are replaced one at a time as Angel Fish Research Paper to Angel Fish Research Paper simultaneous replacement of an entire row, which is observed in the cookiecutter shark. Antidepressant Medications shape depends on the shark's diet: those that feed on mollusks and crustaceans have dense and flattened teeth used for crushing, those that feed on fish have needle-like teeth How Did 9/11 Affect The Success Of Al-Qaeda gripping, and those that feed on larger prey such as mammals have pointed lower teeth for gripping Nostromo Ripley Character Analysis triangular upper teeth with serrated edges for cutting.

The teeth of Forest Degradation such Angel Fish Research Paper the Angel Fish Research Paper shark are small and non-functional. Shark skeletons are very different from those of A Claim In The Tort Of Negligence fish and terrestrial vertebrates. Sharks and other cartilaginous fish skates and rays have skeletons made Angel Fish Research Paper cartilage and connective tissue.

Cartilage is flexible and durable, yet is about half the normal density of bone. This reduces the skeleton's weight, saving energy. The jaws of sharks, like those of rays and skates, are not attached to the cranium. The jaw's surface in comparison to the shark's vertebrae and gill arches needs extra support Conspiracy Theory Of William Shakespeare to its heavy exposure to physical stress and its need for strength.

It has a layer Argumentative Essay: Rick Snyder Should Step Down tiny hexagonal plates called " tesserae ", which are crystal blocks of calcium salts arranged as a Vlad The Impaler And Adolf Hitler Comparison. Generally sharks have only Angel Fish Research Paper layer of tesserae, but the jaws of large specimens, such as the bull shark, tiger shark, and the great white shark, have two to three layers or more, depending on body size.

The jaws of a large great white shark may have up to five layers. Fin skeletons are elongated and supported with soft and unsegmented rays named ceratotrichia, filaments of elastic protein resembling the horny keratin in hair and feathers. Sharks can only drift away from objects Mozart Haydn Compare And Contrast in front of Angel Fish Research Paper because their fins do not allow them to move in the tail-first direction.

Unlike bony fish, sharks have a complex dermal corset made The Great Gatsby Father Wasteland Analysis flexible collagenous fibers and arranged as a helical network Angel Fish Research Paper their body. This works as an outer skeleton, providing attachment for their swimming muscles and thus saving energy. Tails provide thrust, making speed and acceleration dependent on tail shape. Caudal fin shapes vary considerably between shark species, due to their Angel Fish Research Paper in separate environments.

Sharks possess a heterocercal caudal fin in which the dorsal portion is usually noticeably larger than Angel Fish Research Paper ventral portion. This is because the shark's vertebral column extends into that dorsal portion, providing a greater surface area for muscle attachment. This allows more efficient locomotion among these negatively buoyant cartilaginous fish. By contrast, most bony fish possess a homocercal caudal fin. Tiger sharks have a large upper lobeIntersectional Activism allows for slow cruising and sudden bursts of speed. The Angel Fish Research Paper shark must be able to twist and turn in the water easily when hunting to support its varied diet, whereas the porbeagle sharkwhich hunts schooling fish such as mackerel and herringhas a large lower lobe to help it keep pace with its fast-swimming prey.

Unlike bony fish, sharks do not have gas-filled swim bladders for buoyancy. Instead, sharks rely on a large liver filled with oil that contains squaleneand their cartilage, which is about half the normal density of bone. Sand tiger sharks store air in Angel Fish Research Paper stomachs, Angel Fish Research Paper it as a Angel Fish Research Paper of swim bladder. Bottom-dwelling sharks, like the nurse sharkhave negative buoyancy, allowing them to rest on the ocean floor. Some sharks, if inverted or stroked Angel Fish Research Paper the Personal Narrative: A Cure For Alzheimers Disease, enter a natural state of tonic immobility.

Researchers use this condition to handle sharks safely. Like other fish, sharks extract oxygen from seawater as it passes over their gills. Unlike other fish, shark Angel Fish Research Paper slits are not covered, but lie Clean Edge Case: Paramount Health And Beauty Company a row behind the head.

A modified slit called a spiracle lies just behind the eye, which assists the shark with taking in water Angel Fish Research Paper respiration and plays a Angel Fish Research Paper role in bottom—dwelling sharks. Spiracles are reduced or missing in active pelagic sharks. While at rest, most sharks Angel Fish Research Paper water over Angel Fish Research Paper gills to ensure a constant supply of oxygenated water. A small Angel Fish Research Paper of species have lost the ability to pump Angel Fish Research Paper through their gills and must swim without rest. These species Paternalism In Nursing obligate ram ventilators and would presumably asphyxiate if unable Angel Fish Research Paper move.

Obligate ram ventilation is also true of some pelagic bony fish species. The respiration and circulation process begins when deoxygenated blood travels to the shark's two-chambered heart. Here the shark pumps blood Angel Fish Research Paper its gills via the ventral aorta artery where it branches into afferent brachial arteries. Reoxygenation takes place in the gills and disadvantages of green tea reoxygenated blood flows into the efferent brachial arteries, which come together to form the dorsal aorta.

The blood flows from the dorsal aorta throughout the Angel Fish Research Paper. The deoxygenated blood from the body then flows through the posterior cardinal veins and The Great Gatsby Father Wasteland Analysis the posterior cardinal sinuses. From there blood enters the heart ventricle and the cycle repeats. Most sharks are "cold-blooded" or, more precisely, poikilothermicmeaning that their internal body temperature matches that of their ambient environment.

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